De wijze wolken

Kruf, J.P. (2020). De wijze wolken.

De wolken zijn wijs, in velerlei opzicht. Zij wijzen ons vaak de weg, deze Nederlandse bergen (Dutch mountains). Bezongen in vele liederen en hymnen, zoals door Joni Mitchell: ‘it’s clouds illusions I recall’. Op de rug in de duinen. Wat is er mooier dan dit perspectief met rust en reflectie?

Het pad

Kruf, J.P. (2018). Het pad. Posbank.

De Filosofie van het landschap van cultuurfilosoof Ton Lemaire is lezenswaardig. Ik ben dit degelijk werk uit 1970 aan het herlezen. Het heeft mij gevormd in het begrijpen hoe natuur en landschap om ons heen liggen, ook door de tijd heen.

In een tijd van grote dynamiek, waarin wij thans leven, lijkt het vinden van het eigen pad tevens dé tocht die wij moeten afleggen. Een pad van ontdekking naar de natuur, ook onze natuur, en vooral gebaseerd op de eigen waarneming en reflectie. Dit pittoresk plaatje, geschoten op de Posbank, past in de inspiratie van dit boek. Aan de horizon schijnt de zon. Een beeld uit de romantiek.

Zooming out, getting the picture

Kruf, J.P. (2019). Zooming out, getting the picture. Stonehenge Landscape.

One of the crucial skills of public leaders and managers is to be able to get the bigger picture of society, and from there to connect things and to act accordingly. Mayors and city managers among others need to keep the main focus on the bigger picture, while aldermen and directors have their specific discipline, craftsmanship and portfolio. Overview and content go hand in hand, both complementary pieces of the puzzle of public governance. Zooming out is a form of art, necessary to understand the city as an ecosystem. For this art, Alexander von Humboldt and Roelof A.A. Oldeman have been of great inspiration. The ability of zooming out is the essential skill for true knowledge, they say. Two quotes.

Naturalist, explorer and geographer Alexander von Humboldt (1856) concluded that zooming out leads to more overview and offers the possibility to interconnect things (and even sciences). Von Humboldt gave guidance on the relation between ecosystems and abiotic factors. At the beginning of the 19th century, he came to this fascinating conclusion, actually revolutionary for that time.

“Physical geography…, elevated to a higher point of view, … embraces the sphere of organic life…”. – Humboldt (1856).

He saw the connection between the life in the ecosystems and the constraints of soil, water, energy and climate. Nobody before him had done this. Also in cities these connections between in fact habitats and communities are all over the place. So we can learn here from the discoveries of Von Humboldt.

“The principle impulse by which I was directed was the earnest endeavour to comprehend the phenomena of physical objects in their general connection, and to represent nature as one great whole, moved and animated by internal forces. Without an earnest striving to attain to a knowledge of special branches of study, all attempts to give a grand and general view of the universe would be nothing more than vain illusion.” – Von Humboldt (1856)

Connection between sciences seems to be necessary to find the real answers. It is about the ability of sharpening one’s view from different angles and principles. Oldeman et al. (1990) underlined, in cross-border studies of forests, the need for such an holistic approach in diagnosis. He always encouraged, within the fragmented landscape of sciences, the necessity to cross the by individual universities so heavily guarded boundaries. For most of the city challenges, the process of policy making and service delivery needs to be based on a cross-border view, to come to well-founded decisions.

“The group that was responsible for the forest components theme decided to accelerate the process by starting an ambitious project, the writing of a common book. There is no way in which cooperation can be stimulated better, but this way has to be learned and practised too. The result is now before you. The book is not yet ideal in our opinion because it still contains too many traces of the old University tradition of researchers working, each apart, on such narrow subjects as they know best.

This way of executing the research of course is necessary to reach sufficient depth. But it carries the risk of loss of vision of the whole system, parts of which are studied. Still a little bit unbalanced, but on its way to improve along lines that are more clear now, this presentation in a pluridisciplinary way is a first step, however, to overcome both the limits of individual researchers and the shallowness of groups. We trust, however, that it is exactly this wrestling with integration of broad views versus the deepening of restricted views that may be as interesting to the reader as the facts, figures, conclusions and hypotheses on forests and their components which are presented in the following pages.” – Oldeman et al. (1990)

Von Humboldt and Oldeman are inspiring in this cross-scientific and pluridisciplinary discovery. Zooming out is crucial to get the picture.

Bibliography
Humboldt, Alexander von (1856). Kosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe, Volume 1. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. 406 pp.

Oldeman, R.A.A., P. Schmidt and E.J.M. Arnolds (1990). Forest components. Wageningen: Aricultural University, 111 pp.

Ecosystem City®

Fifty shades of green

Kruf, J.P. (2005). Fifty shades of green. Scotland.

Following the present political debates, the most attention – by far – goes to Covid-19. I can understand that, although to a certain level. What seems more dominant in the long run – in terms of challenges and finding proper strategies – are the transition towards green and sustainable energy as well as the redesign of our economy according circular principles.

More focus on stewardship, on building resilience, could be wise. The prospect of ending up in a permanent state of crisis management is not that convenient. Not for citizens, not for ecosystems, not for society, not for governors and even not for politicians.

I think the idea of green is the selling point, the ultimate metaphor of today. Or maybe better the fifty shades of green. Rebuilding our cities in a renaissance of green elements, forests and parks is a pleasant thought, encouraging and lifting our hearts and souls. This picture, taken on a journey through Scotland with my three daughters Renée, Michelle and Louise, says it all. It is an iconic landscape.

Over de zeespiegelstijging

Kruf, J.P. (2013). Dijkpaal 992. Sint-Maartensdijk, Tholen.

Enige tijd geleden was ik op bezoek bij een directeur van een waterschap. Ik vroeg hem wat zijn grootste uitdaging was. “Draagvlak verkrijgen bij de bevolking voor dijkverzwaringen”, zei hij. Ik vroeg hem in hoeverre de feitelijke achterliggende reden om onze dijken te verzwaren, hierbij een rol speelden. Hij antwoordde: “Voor de direct aanwonenden is zo’n project natuurlijk zeer ingrijpend. Bij hen stuit het vaak op tal van bezwaren, begrijpelijk ook. Voor het geheel van bevolking achter de dijk betekent het echter bovenal meer veiligheid. Wat opvalt is dat de zeespiegelstijging als fenomeen niet echt aanwezig is in het debat. Het is toch abstract, weinig tastbaar, vooral niet zichtbaar en gevoelsmatig ver weg.”

Vanuit de eigen ervaring – als gemeentesecretaris, directeur stadsbeheer, interim-manager en strategisch adviseur – constateer ik, dat er diverse onderzoeken, rapporten, getallen en interpretaties rondzweven tussen wetenschappers, politici, bedrijven, burgers, non-profit-organisaties, gemeenten, provincies, ministeries, waterschappen en hun koepelorganisaties. Er is op dit punt echt sprake van verdeeldheid, segmentatie en fragmentatie.

Aan dit gesprek moest ik terugdenken, toen ik gisteren in de editie van 25 september 2020 van Nature de resultaten las van dit gezaghebbend onderzoek – over de gevolgen van de opwarming van de aarde voor de ijsmassa van Antarctica – door Garbe et al. (2020). Deze objectieve en feitelijke kennis zou voortaan een bijdrage kunnen en moeten spelen in de communicatie rondom dijkverzwaringsprojecten en in bredere zin bij de aanpak van watermanagement. Lijkt mij althans. Zonder paniek te zaaien, uiteraard. Duidelijkheid en vooral eerlijkheid duurt het langst.

Ik zeg het in mijn eigen woorden: de eerste 2 graden opwarming van de aarde (ten opzichte van het pre-industrieel tijdperk), leidt tot 1.3 meter/graad zeespiegelstijging. Vanaf 2 tot 6 graden opwarming is de stijging 2.4 meter/graad en daarboven 10 meter/graad. Tot dat alles gesmolten is uiteraard. Antarctica heeft equivalent aan ijsmassa dat overeenkomt met 58 meter zeespiegelstijging. Als dit zo is dan is Groenland al lang gesmolten. Ik meen dat de equivalent van de ijsmassa van Groenland 17 meter is. Dus samen 75 meter. Goed om te weten wat wij moeten conserveren en herstellen.

We staan nu op 1.1 graad opwarming, overeenkomend met circa 1.5 meter zeespiegelstijging. Ook 1.5 meter, net als bij Covid-19. Maar zal toeval zijn. Wat bijzonder is dat de onderzoekers stellen dat het opnieuw aangroeien van het ijs vraagt om een temperatuur van de aarde, die tenminste 1 graad lager ligt dan vóór het pre-industriële tijdperk. En dat lijkt buiten het bereik van de mens te liggen. Alleen de zon kan ons helpen door minder te stralen, liefs tijdelijk. Of wij maken machines die dit kunnen.

Het is goed om te weten wat komen gaat, zeker voor mijn kleinkinderen en hun kleinkinderen. Immers “regeren is vooruitzien”. Niet alleen de reductie van CO2 door een succesvolle energietransitie is wat voorligt als opgave, maar bij de veel besproken en waarschijnlijke scenario’s van 3 à 4 graden opwarming is een zeespiegel die de komende generaties zo’n 8 meter hoger ligt een uitdaging voor onze steden, badplaatsen en havens. Niet alleen bescherming door, maar ook innovatie in ruimtelijke planning en infrastructuur zijn de grote uitdagingen die voorliggen. Bij dijkpaal 992 houd ik voorlopig de wacht.

Bibliografie

Garbe, J., Albrecht, T., Levermann, A. et al. (2020) The hysteresis of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Nature 585, 538–544. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2727-5

Re-re-reminder

Kruf,J.P. (2016) Re-re-reminder. Beaune, Frankrijk.

Het bericht, dat David Attenborough in nog geen 5 uur meer dan 3 miljoen volgers binnenhaalt op zijn nieuwe Instagram-account, lijkt veel te zeggen over de gevoelde urgentie om het tij te keren inzake de opwarming van de aarde en het behoud én herstel van biodiversiteit. Nu de daad bij het woord.

Bij dit bericht herinnerde ik mij dit plekje in Beaune, Frankrijk. De gemeente had inmiddels drie maal het verkeersbord eenrichtingsverkeer geplaatst. Toch waagden diverse mensen de richting die zij niet geacht werden te kiezen. Een mooie reminder. Ik hang hem aan de muur. Niet vergeten! Een re-re-reminder. De rijrichting moet dus anders, echt.

The Quietness of the Street

Kruf, J.P. (2018). Quietness Palette. Cadíz.

Every city has its places, where the quietness of the street opens the story. Here you almost can hear the whispering of those who lived here centuries ago and the breath of an empire. This colourful and straight palette is fully packed with information and reminds us of the rich history of one of the oldest cities in Europe, Cadíz. Sherlock knows that this city was and is strictly managed in many ways. You can feel it. It is a form of art, that of city management. A beauty.

New Insights

Kruf, J.P. (2015) New Insights

During and directly after a crisis, one may come with new insights. Change can come from the interior need for a new organisation and maybe a more practical approach. Or it can come from an exterior perspective to have a better view on the outside world. In the old town of Lucca, Italy, we walked along this piece of art.

Anno 2020, after and during the Covid-19, the need for change is obvious, in public, civic and business organisations. This is driven by internal incentives, related to:

• Business continuity (for all products and services to citizen and clients).

• Human resource management (towards a more vital, agile and flexible organisation, new roles or functions are needed).

• Finance (finding new resilience and balance, tax and budget rescheduling, control priorities).

• Information management (secure the new cyber world with home and on distance protocols).

• Procurement (recheck suppliers and contracts in effectivity and continuity).

• Cooperation (the need for co-creation and for new value-driven alliances).

• Strategy and policy (from ‘be better prepared’, ex-post and risk approach towards a more ex-ante, resilience, value and scenario-driven way of thinking and acting).

• Leadership and the C-suite (from delegation and top-down styles to true ownership of value and risk approaches, stewardship and serving styles focused on delivery).

• Interface politics, elected council, governing council and management (from segmentation and fragmentation towards a more holistic approach of matters concerning citizens, groups and social issues).

Lucca has this beautiful house where new insights, reorientation and rebuilding actually meet perfectly. It is a metaphor for resilience management. The house of public governance is expected to follow the owners of this house.

The Ferris Wheel of Governance

Kruf, J.P. (2019) Ferris Wheel. Dubai.

The Ferris wheel of governance is indicating that we migrate at a swift pace from the crisis management modus to ‘normal’ management and governance. Democracy re-installs itself after months of Covid-19 crisis management. Old patterns return. The flow and the collective belief vanishes rapidly and the communal obedience of the people is replaced by daily traffic between opposition leaders, governors and citizens.

With one single blow Racism has replaced Corona. I thought. But not quite so though. In the debate today between the mayor of Amsterdam and the elected council – about the fact that she did not enforce the 1.5 meter in an anti-racism demonstration – shows that the wheel is turning. Who is right? I cannot say, but the fact that both worlds meet and spend hours and hours to battle each other with arguments is enough proof for this dilemma. We’re back again where we were before, for sure. The turning of the ferris wheel shows us again the old dilemma’s we are facing and segmentation in politics. At the same time it is about the balancing act of democracy.

On this quiet evening at home, I remembered – as a contrast with the harsh debate this afternoon in Amsterdam (live on television) – the words It’s cloud’s illusions I recall… of  Joni Mitchell in her song Both sides now (1968). I remember the peaceful time we had last months, not always easy but with elements of quietness and easy news. Joni:

Moons and Junes and ferries wheels
The dizzy dancing way that you feel
As every fairy tale comes real
I’ve looked at love that way

We’re back.

Rainy Day Perspective

Kruf J.P. (2019) Rainy Day Perspective.

Today was a rainy day, finally. I look out my window and see the city lights in the far distance, through the palette of raindrops, while reading some articles about the latest financial developments due to Covid-19. Well, an interesting view on the threshold of the near future, of tomorrow.

The predictions, to be frank, are worrisome for the coming years and more difficult after 2 years from now. I know the government can print new money very easily or borrow it relatively cheaply. It can spend budgets on all individuals, communities, civic organisations and companies which are in (desperate) need of support. We know all these spendings at the end will have to be refunded and paid back by citizens, companies and lower governments like municipalities. It is unavoidable to find new balance again. The awareness under public leaders, city managers, CFO’s and concern controllers is growing – “Houston, we have a problem” –, because cash registers are deflating rapidly.

Where a romantic late evening view with a good glass of wine can cross the thoughts on a new financial strategy for local government and the city. Same picture, two perspectives: that of home sweet home and the other one of the need for a sparkling and financial solid public strategy. A reflective mood.

George Floyd en sociale corrosie

Kruf, J.P. (2016) Corrosie.

Welnu, ik dacht dat dit de eerste zou kunnen zijn van een set coachingskaarten voor publieke en politieke leiders om nader de diagnose te stellen wat er in de samenleving gebeurt. De dood van George Floyd toont zich als een pars pro toto voor racisme op wereldschaal. Het kan worden beschouwd als een vorm van sociale corrosie. Immers de toedracht van zijn dood verbindt de individuele politieman, met zijn teamgenoten die erbij waren, met zijn directe baas, met de baas van de baas, met de politie als bedrijf, met hun bestuurders, met de president van de Verenigde Staten, met het systeem en uiteindelijk met onszelf. Pars pro toto als begrip kan niet beter worden uitgelegd.

Het is een persoonlijke associatie van mij hoe het leven in steden wordt gedomineerd door demonstraties van mensen die vragen om liefde, gelijkheid en rechtvaardigheid. De stad – daar waar het weefsel van de samenleving zich toont – leeft en spreekt luid en duidelijk. Hun leiderschap staat op het spel en wanneer dit gebeurt. Een kantelpunt lijken wij te nader. Jimmy Carter raakt hier de essentie van: “We hebben een regering nodig die zo goed is als haar mensen (red. in de samenleving, de burger).” Een ontkoppeling van goed leiderschap lijkt zich aan te dienen, het mechanisme van corrosie lijkt in werking te treden.

Leiderschap in reflectie

Madeliefje, Bellis perennis (L.) © J.P.Kruf

Leiderschap wordt na elke crisis opnieuw gedefinieerd. Er zijn allerlei gedachten en bespiegelingen over wat er precies is gebeurd  en nog steeds gebeurt. Was Covid-19 een witte zwaan? Was het een zwarte zwaan? Wat had de rol van de C-Suite en van het publieke bestuur kunnen of moeten zijn? Schoten zij tekort? Hadden zij het kunnen weten? Wisten zij van de dreiging? De vragen en de antwoorden zijn talrijk. Honderden artikelen vinden dagelijks hun weg naar de media, social of niet.

Het is interessant, die vele reflecties over leiderschap in tijden van crisis. De bestuurlijke wetenschappen zoeken meer dan ooit wat goed leiderschap is, naar wat het zeker niet is of wat het had of zou moeten zijn. Wat zegt het huidig leiderschap over waar wij staan als samenleving. Zoals ecologen weten waarom madeliefjes bloeien en wat hun plek in het bosecosysteem is, zo willen bestuurskundigen weten hoe leiderschap (een bloem is een mooie metafoor) verbonden kan met de staat van de samenleving.

Wat leert deze crisis ons op dit punt? Hoe staat het eigenlijk met de natuurlijke selectie van onze leiders nu de omstandigheden in het grote bos veranderd zijn en nog gaan veranderingen? Zo’n zeperd als Covid-19 kunnen wij ons niet nog eens permitteren. En u weet met mij, wat op ons bordje ligt, wat komen gaat. Met het Global Risks Report 2020 voor ons, de Sustainable Development Goals in de achterzak en de Grondwet in de hand, is het zaak nog wat dieper te graven op het aspect van leiderschap. Is wijs. Is noodzaak. Leiderschap is in volle reflectie. Een nieuwe lente vraagt om een nieuw geluid.

Janus and the art of navigation

Kruf, J.P. (2015) The God Janus.

When it comes to navigation in times of high dynamics and change, it was pilot John Boyd who developed a revolutionary and simple concept, the OODA loop: observe, orient, decide and act. The first steps are crucial, he said, when you fly with a speed of 900 km/h, upside down and 100 meter above a mountainous landscape. Is this not the situation where we as society are in today? After Boyd many scientists, experts and advisers developed a myriad of concepts, frameworks and approaches to tackle change and to find navigation in a volatile world.

The Romans already had a god for transitions, gates, passages and doorways. They called him Janus, derived form iānus, meaning in Latin ‘arched passage, doorway’. Can we say that we find ourselves in a doorway, a gate? And can we say we need to find our path, i.e. through developing a circular economy, caring for digital transformation, implementing energy transition, innovating water management, tackling a first grade health crisis, dealing with inequality, racism and poverty? Yes, we can. We are in a doorway, maybe on a threshold towards a new world. Janus is our ‘man’, our god. We need to give him more thought in our souls, not worship him, and ask him advice in the steps to come.

I think I timed the moment (exactly 10 years after my father died) and find the right angle of sunlight, beaming (was it actually him?) through this work of art at our home. Janus looking forward, Janus looking backward and in reflection its metaperspective. The art of navigation is alike. Observe by looking forward and backward, and orient where you are by reflecting on this, decide and act.

Janus and the art of navigation. Janus is presiding over all beginnings and transitions. Should we ask him for his wisdom again? And if we do, let’s not forget John.

Representatieve democratie

Kruf, J.P. (2017) Representatieve democratie.

De zwarte pion in het schaakspel kan worden beschouwd als de vertegenwoordiger van hen door wie het is gekozen, de witte pionnen. Het is een rol – niets meer, niets minder – die hij of zij krijgt toebedeeld om te besturen en te beslissen in de geest van en in de behoefte aan. Burgers en bestuurders hebben, zo beschouwd, dezelfde hoogte. Dit is een wezenlijk uitgangspunt van de idee van representatieve democratie. Dit beeld is een metafoor, uiteraard. De vergelijking met de werkelijkheid gaat in veel gevallen mank, helaas. Hoewel, zeker niet altijd. Er zijn voorbeelden, die de regel bevestigen. Dat zijn de echte leiders.

De zwarte pion als onderdeel van de groep, van de samenleving, onder de mensen toegankelijk, luisterend, transparant, verbindend, communicerend, de eigen achtergrond nooit vergetend of verloochenend en vooral wetend dat het niet meer is als de witte pion. Zou dat niet geweldig zijn!?

Camouflage in the city

Kruf, J.P. (2015) Camouflage in the city. Verona.

This palette of colour and construction finds its base in the combination of city regulation, the use of different materials, the progressive insights in and possibilities for the creation of new infrastructure to ease interior lifestyle as well as of the personal colour touch of the owner of this house in the centre of the City of Verona. It is a form of camouflage, at least a very nice try. The image is fully packed with information.

Resilience of what to what?

Pompen, L. (2015). Sol? No!. Cambodia.

What is resilience? Well, there is no simple answer to this. The concept is in development in different sciences and recently entered the public governance domain related to the social-ecological system of society. Resilience is the new buzzword. Millions of years it played an essential role in natural ecosystems, now it has been launched as new concept for thinking and acting from government perspective. But where is it about? The ability to endure stress and still be able to perform or the capacity to recover after a catastrophe? Maybe both?

The question can not be answered or even is meaningless without putting it in the context resilience of what to what? In our approach we focus on the resilience of the ecosystem city to specific external (abiotic, climate change)) or internal (biotic, virus attack) caused disturbances.

“Resilience has multiple levels of meaning: as a metaphor related to sustainability, as a property of dynamic models, and as a measurable quantity that can be assessed in field studies of socioecological system (SES). The operational indicators of resilience have, however, received little attention in the literature. To assess a system’s resilience, one must specify which system configuration and which disturbances are of interest.”

CARPENTER ET AL. (2001)

C. S. Holling (1973) introduced the word resilience into the ecological literature as a way of helping to understand the non-linear dynamics observed in ecosystems. Since then the concept diversified in all directions. Resilience is wide interpreted and used, it is difficult to understand and therefore possibly of limited use for precise governance. Like accountability, new normal, alignment, roadmap, risk, streamline and sustainability it can become a container concept and a buzzword.

“Resilience,” like love, is difficult to define, yet everyone – from United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to government agencies, company boards, and community groups – is talking about how to build or maintain it. So, is resilience a useful concept or a meaningless buzzword?

BRIAN WALKER (2015)

For the core definition of resilience, we go back to the forest. It is a simple and therefore generally applicable definition.

‘Resilience is the ability to bounce back, basically in the face of disturbance, maintaining functions and structures of the system and recovering from the disturbance.”

RUPERT SEIDL (2019)

The resilience of the ecosystem city is telling the story of the balancing act of the population in the present habitat of the city. Of course, there are many layers of habitats within the city and some justify to zoom in and consider resilience on a lower level. In general, it is like when you have plans to investing your money in stocks and funds: results in the past are no guarantee for the future.

It is with resilience like looking into the mirror: you know where you are and where you come from, not so much about where you are going and what will happen. It is hard to predict how future external developments influence the habitat of communities and whether they will exceed the resilience of the system and whether the system is able to tackle change properly.

To let resilience successfully – and Brian Walker (2017) from Resilience Alliance underlines the (urgent) need for this – enter the stage of public governance it is wise to start with using it always in the context resilience of what to what (Carpenter et al., 2001).

Bibliography

Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Anderies, J. and Abel, N. (2001) From Metaphor to Measurement: Resilience of What to What?. Ecosystems 4, 765–781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9

Holling, C.S. (1973) Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Vol. 4:1-23 (Volume publication date November 1973). https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245

Seidl, Rupert (2019) Voices of Resilience https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=755F__a5agM

Walker, Brian (2015) What is resilience? Project Syndicate. https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/what-is-resilience-by-brian-walker?barrier=accesspaylog

Walker, Brian (2017). Brian Walker at Resilience 2017. Stockholm. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6G2-IFfRwzM

City, center of the world

Kruf, J.P. (2003) New York.

Why choose the city as the center of the world as level of ecosystem consideration. Why compare the city with a forest? Why not surf to other levels as neighbourhood, region or even country? Why using city as a metaphor for the public domain and society in the concept of Ecosystem City®? Some considerations.

For most of us the city has an association with personal being. It is tangible, real and existing: you are born, you marry, raise your children and die in a city. Your passport is signed by the mayor of your city. It has the nearest governmental system for all of us and is the closest to the self-identification of people (“Where are you from?”).

From the perspective of the tourist in ourselves, the city is the place to explore new people, cultures, arts and cuisines. The city trip is regarded as the ultimate romantic encounter for couples. For large groups, the city stop is a comfortable and easy way to discover new horizons. Complete industries have discovered and exploited the city from a marketing and business perspective. The city is hot. It is the center of the world.

The city is the place where organisations, interests, roles, relations, factors, processes and cycles actually meet. Interactions are most dynamically in cities. The fabric of society seems to be woven within the boundaries of the city. The term politics has been derived from the Greek: πολιτικά, politiká, meaning “affairs of the cities”. Indeed, the city was the birthplace of public governance, from which it started its long process of evolution and development. And even today the city is regarded as the center of politics. An American politician stated once:

“All politics, after all, is local”. 

TIP O’NEILL (1994) 

I think he as the point. It is this entity wherein the end, all things meet.

Bibliography

O’Neill, Tip and Gary Hymel (1994) All Politics Is Local: And Other Rules of the Game. Canada: Bob Adams, Inc.